Opengl 3d Texture Example

Most attempts have been very basic in command line,. Specify texture mapping parameters »Wrapping, filtering, etc. Additionally, the app uses the stencil buffer and a single user clip plane to perform a simple CSG operation. In this first OpenGL tutorial you will see the basic structure to initiate an OpenGL View on an Android system. For an easy way of writing regular material shaders, see Surface Shaders Unity’s code generation approach that makes it much easier to write lit shaders than using low level vertex/pixel shader programs. This application is a portfolio of examples, based on the lessons and tutorials over at Learn OpenGL ES to help teach you OpenGL ES and 3D graphics programming on Android. planet texture maps. The first line glGenTextures(1, &texture[0]) tells OpenGL we want to generate one texture name (increase the number if you load more than one texture). Examples of OpenGL commands include drawing polygons, assigning colors to shapes, applying textures to polygons (texture mapping), zooming in and out, transforming polygons, and rotating objects. Geometric Objects. OpenGL Examples Here are some OpenGL example programs, presented in an order in which new topics are added in each successive example. You just learnt to create, load and use textures in OpenGL. When the application gets a PAINT event (using the normal Windows event processing scheme), it paints the cube as specified in Redraw(). The binding of textures works with the following method. It will not explain the math behind perspective projection, for example. This page contains vertex and fragment program examples. (Remember that you need a 3D card to get opengl working on your machine. 5, the world’s leading 3D API for real-time computer graphics. These tutorials are held locally by the j3d. The texture is generated as a GL_RGBA texture containing GL_FLOAT values. The texture coordinates are then projected onto the geometry from the perspective of this plane. SDL as it stands is nice for basic 2D graphics/composition, but when it comes to more intensive gaming applications or 3D graphics, we need to leverage the use of other libraries. Evaluators. Sparse textures only support non-compressed texture formatsA file format for handling textures during realtime rendering by 3D graphics hardware,. opengl documentation: Using textures in GLSL shaders. We offer high quality and large-scale training courses as well as many free video tutorials on all topics, including modeling, texturing, animation, game creation, and 3D printing. You will find here more than 160,000 photos for your artworks. In order to perform the texture projection, we will use OpenGL's EYE_LINEAR texture coordinate generation, which generates texture coordinates for a vertex based upon its eye-space position. 0 for android. And by default, webgl. "An Overview and an Example" gives a brief, broad look at the steps required to perform texture mapping. A typical scenario would go something. Specifically, the guide addresses displacement tuning in Mental Ray, specularity properties and using stacked procedurals to create cracks, rust, and bumpy structures over the surface. GL_TEXTURE_2D. Thus, the standard camera image in the background is colored while the the cube is only grayscale. A vertex could have a 2D texture coordinates (s, t), which provides a reference point to a 2D texture image. Create a UVTex mapping for the object or faces. 9 plugin Download link Move the downloaded plugin to the plugin folder of ePSXe Now download shaders from here Download link Create a folder named shaders in Plugin folder and paste all shaders there. glGenTextures(). Blender Fundamentals 2. In this case, the SGX can perform color space conversion to an RGB format. A complete book with 24 3D images that are easy to push out, matching design paper and example cards. And then later use the 3d texture for sampeling. Render To Texture (RTT) technique is one of the most important things to know in modern computer graphics programming. glBindTexture(GL2. Special texture mapping is used to map these images onto a virtual sphere. 3D textures are not supported by OpenGL-ES. I am writing this JOGL tutorial because I did not find another good one. It is little bit difficult for beginner to start. The sample code covers examples of the major 3D graphics features in about 400 lines: Window, OpenGL, HMD, and OpenGL extension initialization; Triangle mesh rendering (OpenGL Vertex Array Buffers) Shader loading, compilation, and argument passing (OpenGL Program, Shader, and Uniform Buffer Objects) Offscreen rendering (OpenGL Framebuffer Objects). The basic idea is that you render a scene just like you usually do, but this time in a texture that you can reuse later. A texture coordinate can be either be a single scalar in the case of 1D textures (a single row of texels which may represent a gradient, opacity or weight), a 2-component value in the case of 2D textures, or a 3-component value in the case of 3D textures or even a 4-component value in the case of projected textures. The attached workspace takes contour data for two hawaiian islands Lanai and Molokai, generates TIN surfaces (TIN_SURFACE is a new TINGenerator output port in FME 2010), and adds portions of a. Modern OpenGL are different than ancient opengl version before 2. I know how to do it using Blender Render, but not with Cycles Render. Originally developed for the game and film industries, where it is the reference solution for 3D texturing, Substance is now expanding its presence to industries such as apparel and footwear, retail, transportation design, product design, and architecture. In any case the standard is to specify them as an ordered pair (u, v) usually with values ranging from 0 to 1 floating point. The functions for this in OpenGL are glTranslatef() and glTranslated(). The 3D texture capability could be very useful in scientific work when the 3D texture is defined by an array. Something similar would be for 3d textures. Diffuse is just a regular texture thats stretched and blurred. js was created by Lauren McCarthy and is developed by a community of collaborators, with support from the Processing Foundation and NYU ITP. The following code is an example of a 2D texture mapping, which provides a basic usage of textures. Carbon M1 Super Fast 3D. Basic OpenGL optimizations (e. 1D, 2D, 3D and cube map textures. The OpenGL object responsible for doing this is called Sampler and we will discuss them in this article as well. Hawaii DEM Texture Example In order to demonstrate how FME 2010 works with textures, our core team developer Brittany Zenger created this example. It is about as useful as a box of Lego, but it is great fun to play with. >> OpenGL ES 2. Qt e OpenGL - Le texture tridimensionali Nel precedente articolo abbiamo cominciato a parlare delle texture OpenGL, analizzando un esempio in cui abbiamo disegnato un cubo rotante con un numero disegnato su ciascuna faccia. Providing easy-to-use debugging tools for tracing OpenGL ES API calls and checking for errors. Here we hope over time that you will find a number of tutorials about Java and OpenGL. The output of the function can be displayed at the top of the screen, so it will be easy to make sure if the output is true or not. If you are experience in ancient version of OpenGL you might have done Texture mapping which is similar to here. This is the website of Grant James (ZEUS) This website is dedicated to bring you tutorials on c++, opengl, opengl es, directx, java, photoshop, 3dsmax, visual basic. The program uses standard OpenGL 3 techniques: creates a context and gl window using GLFW3, creates and compiles a set of shaders into a program, buffers the vertex positions and the texture into the gpu memory; finally starts a loop where the square is drawn to the screen. Source code is included. WebGL Fundamentals. This is mostly due to the interest in iPhone development which uses OpenGL ES 1. One of them is DevIL, another one is FreeImage. Just like with colours, it uses a global state; only one texture can be bound at a time. I bought a new graphics card which is OpenGL 4. This way you can batch together objects using different textures reducing the number of state changes and draw calls ( more on the later in…. Chapter 4: Rendering a Dynamic 3D Scene with Phong Shading. This is the fourth tutorial in our Android series. Having trouble with physics but thats not why I'm here! So the code below creates a scenegraph which contains torus model. The best way to texture a cube in openGL. The main function of glBindTexture is to assign a texture name to texture data. If you're using OpenGL rather than the graphics entities of SFML, you can still use sf::Texture as a wrapper around an OpenGL texture object and use it along with the rest of your OpenGL code. Using a depth buffer to order 3D objects. OpenGL has some texture coordinate methods for generic texturing. You can learn about the fundamentals of OpenGL here but please keep in mind that 3d graphics is a rapidly improving field. OpenGL® SuperBible, Seventh Edition, is the definitive programmer’s guide, tutorial, and reference for OpenGL 4. The program uses standard OpenGL 3 techniques: creates a context and gl window using GLFW3, creates and compiles a set of shaders into a program, buffers the vertex positions and the texture into the gpu memory; finally starts a loop where the square is drawn to the screen. Most attempts have been very basic in command line,. Any 3D Texture sample, similar to this, anywhere? specially if it uses GLSL since my code is for opengl 3. The repository currently includes 82 sample applications, most of which are featured or described in the book, or were used to generate the screenshots shown in the book. OpenGL supports four basic texture map types. opengl-tutorial. The OpenGL ES standards only specify texture formats in the RGB color space, but there are some extensions which are supported on the SGX for supplying textures in the YCrCb color space. OpenGL® SuperBible, Fifth Edition is the definitive programmer's guide, tutorial, and reference for the world's leading 3D API for real-time computer graphics, OpenGL 3. If you've managed to understand the previous tutorials, it will just be some piece of cake to apply some textures. They have other uses, but displaying a 2D image on 3D geometry is the most common use. It is used to create the smooth finish on top of drywall. 1 - This API specification is supported by Android 1. GLApp and GLImage base classes This "Hello World" app is a bare bones demo of an OpenGL program made with GLApp. That is, the basic structure of an object can change at any time, even if the rendering pipeline is asynchronously using that object. 3D textures are not supported in OpenGL 1. Our textures must equal in width and height like 256 x 256 or something like that. The OpenGL object responsible for doing this is called Sampler and we will discuss them in this article as well. OpenGL is a cross-platform graphics API that specifies a standard software interface for 3D graphics processing hardware. ) $\endgroup$ – user1118321 Jun 19 '16 at 21:44. Fahey (refer to C# wrapper for OpenGL for the Windows operating system). In this Tutorial I will try to walk you through the procedure of creating a Realistic Mahogany Wood Texture in Maya using just procedural textures. An OpenGL cube textured with the camera frame is rendered on top of the standard camera viewfinder. In this OpenGL tutorial, Toptal engineer Asa. OpenGL is one of the most popular rendering SDKs used to develop games. Most Recent WebGL Tutorials. With this book you can easily make cards by combining the materials from the book with card stock in various colors. *cut*ing an object is no opengl-operation on its own. These tutorials cover all sorts of scope from simple getting started, to complex performance enhancement routines. Since this is my first tutorial, please send your feedback, questions or errors to *Update:Please use the comments to contact me* What you need…. A typical scenario would go something. OpenGL 3D texture is not loaded correctly from pixel buffer. Initialization Creating a Window Display Function Reshape Function Main Loop. There's a description here. Here are their descriptions: void glTranslatef(GLfloat x, GLfloat y, GLfloat z); void glTranslated(GLdouble x, GLdouble y, GLdouble z);. 0–capable hardware; on other devices, dependent texture reads can. (requires opengl 1. 0 for android. I am going to use FreeImage to load images for this tutorial. Texture requirements. In this section of the document, you will implement a new helper method to get an input bitmap and return the generated OpenGL texture ID. The texture tutorial program (shown above) demonstrates how OpenGL texturing works. An experimental 3d voxel rendering algorithm. I work in the field of advertising. 14 hours ago · The site opens on a series of four 3D models, or digital sculptures that can be dragged and rotated 360-degrees. OpenGL and VC++ used to move the viewer through a 3D map. It implements textures and shaders loading from the application resources, trilinear anisotropic texture filtering, vertex buffer object initialization and use and perspective projection with depth test enabled. However, the dimension that represents the number of array levels is limited by GL_MAX_ARRAY_TEXTURE_LAYERS, which is generally much smaller. Trouble with FaceGen or 3D not working? See here! Bug Reports Forum. 2+OpenGL tutorials with source code?. I want create array of triangle store (SSBO) and voxels with head indexes (Sparse Texture 3D - GL_R32UI). Release date of the OpenGL driver (Windows systems with hardware-accelerated OpenGL only). Give texture coordinates to go with your geometry. WebGL makes it possible to display amazing realtime 3D graphics in your browser but what many people don't know is that WebGL is actually a 2D API, not a 3D API. 0 implementations supported 3D textures through an extension, OpenGL ES 3. These tutorials are held locally by the j3d. This example shows dynamic Voronoi cells based on an old technique where the hardware is used to compute the diagram using 3D occluded cones. The function setOpenGlDrawCallback can be used to draw 3D data on the window. typedef struct { The x position of our current vertex int X; The Y. Geometric Objects. It saves my time by building cross-platform UI (and of course by awesome hot reloading feature). Even though, it are not able to help if you frown constantly. That graphics card reports a SystemInfo. This page provides Java code examples for android. GLSurfaceView is a good base for building an application that uses OpenGL ES for part or all of its rendering. (requires opengl 1. And memory is a very scarce resource on embedded/mobile devices, which is what ES is targeted for. Use a drywall knife to apply the compound. For more information about the border of a texture refer to the OpenGL function glTexImage1D/2D/3D() documentation. Special texture mapping is used to map these images onto a virtual sphere. Samplers allow access to textures defined in the OpenGL side of the application, through functions that will retrieve values from the texture data. The OpenGL Samples Pack. 1 (I believe that's the release that MSVC++ 6. Haskell-GLSL-eDSL, A GLSL code generating DSL embedded in Haskell; plissken, a 3D version of snake. There are also some more specialized texture types we might run into later. You can have 1-D, 2-D or 3-D textures and apply them to lines, points and polygons (this paper covers the most common case, where a 2-D texture is applied to polygons). OpenGL supports several types of textures, each with its own texture target, including 1d (GL_TEXTURE_1D), 2d (GL_TEXTURE_2D), and 3d (GL_TEXTURE_3D) textures. opengl 3 0 free download - OpenGL, OpenGL I: Quick Start Sample, OpenGL object 3D example, and many more programs. Texture Mapping. The light reflection and refraction effects are a bit tricky. In this demonstration, we build upon the previous example by replacing our static textures with the frames of an mp4 video file that's playing. 13, a 30 second run of this demo would generate produce 1. This is much faster than using the strings. dsw project and workspace are output in addition to the frame work to an OpenGL application program. •Texture is part of the OpenGL state - If we have different textures for different objects, OpenGL will be moving large amounts data from processor memory to texture memory •Recent versions of OpenGL have texture objects - one image per texture object - Texture memory can hold multiple texture obejcts. OpenGL is the software interface to graphics hardware. NVIDIA continues to support OpenGL as well through technical papers and our large set of examples on our NVIDIA Graphics SDK. In OpenGL 4. This way you can batch together objects using different textures reducing the number of state changes and draw calls ( more on the later in…. Texture Assembly An OpenGL application may wish to apply texture images onto geometric objects to make them look more realistic. Texture requirements. The binding of textures works with the following method. Something similar would be for 3d textures. In this lesson, we're going to add to what we learned in lesson three and learn how to add texturing. See the example of callback function below:. Using a depth buffer to order 3D objects. Obviously, I want the wall to be opaque, except for the panes of glass. Marek Fort. 0 requires it be at least 256. cpp and opengl_cs. net and html. The sample code covers examples of the major 3D graphics features in about 400 lines: Window, OpenGL, HMD, and OpenGL extension initialization; Triangle mesh rendering (OpenGL Vertex Array Buffers) Shader loading, compilation, and argument passing (OpenGL Program, Shader, and Uniform Buffer Objects) Offscreen rendering (OpenGL Framebuffer Objects). Many researchers, however, do not have access to scanning facilities or dense polygonal models. We’re going to see how to apply a texture to a mesh by using mapping coordinates exported from Blender. The program displays the data, and slowly rotates it. This is the website of Grant James (ZEUS) This website is dedicated to bring you tutorials on c++, opengl, opengl es, directx, java, photoshop, 3dsmax, visual basic. Edit: For how this works in CUDA 5 see my new post CUDA 5 and OpenGL Interop and Dynamic Parallelism. DXT compression comes from the DirectX world, where the V texture coordinate is inversed compared to OpenGL. It's not DX11 specific however, 3D textures work on D3D9, D3D11, OpenGL, Xbox 360 etc. Select the Material window configuration which puts the UV/Image Editor and 3D View up simultaneously (see image below. An example in pseudo-code is given below. disable-angle is. There are some optional flags for images that are related to sparse images. For these reasons, developers are discouraged from changing (for example) a 128x128 mipmapped texture into a 125×127 mipmapped texture hoping the slightly smaller texture size is an advantage. In this lesson, we’re going to add to what we learned in lesson three and learn how to add texturing. (changing values of gluLookAt() has no effect) I've Google'd alot but have not found anything useful. You can tag a parameter with more than one GL tag, for example you can tie the material’s Base Color to the OpenGL diffuse, specular, and ambient lighting colors. 0 implementations supported 3D textures through an extension, OpenGL ES 3. You will learn to apply both 2D and 3D technologies to bring your game idea to life. OVERVIEW Brief introduction to 3D rasterization and OpenGL Creating a basic OpenGL window and context Using OpenGL to draw images from a CUDA C application. The OpenGL Utility Toolkit for X Windows, Windows 95 and Windows NT. This image is also known as a texture map. The best all-around introduction to OpenGL for developers at all levels of experience, it clearly explains both the API and essential associated programming concepts. OpenGL Sample Code (including VR samples) This article describes my minimal reference code for modern GPU-enabled real-time 3D graphics, which is both a sample program and a self-contained tutorial. 22 Experimental WebGL Demo Examples Article by Awwwards in Web Design - May 15 WebGL is a web standard created to display 3D graphics in any platform that supports OpenGL. js – JavaScript 3D library submit project. " Corners are referred to as vertices (plural) or as a vertex (singular). 3D textures—While some OpenGL ES 2. Using SDL 2. The result is a texture coordinate that accesses the proper individual face texture of the cubemap. OpenGL is a standardized API used to draw 3D graphics to the screen (similar to DirectX / Direct3D). 0 shader development on your iPad, iPhone or iPod touch today. This example shows dynamic Voronoi cells based on an old technique where the hardware is used to compute the diagram using 3D occluded cones. GLuint image: The unique identifier for the OpenGL texture or render buffer object that has been previously defined. When you do not have to share all the same hobbies plus activities, one does want to have some things can also enjoy collectively. Example: Loading a Texture. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to convert an app from using OpenGL to Metal. Basic texturing. Specifically, the texture coordinates for a polygon are provided for manipulation as are the polygons coordinates themselves. Link to OpenGL/Computer Graphics References and Resources. The OpenGL code for this sample was formed using an OpenGL wrapper class written by Colin P. The OpenGL object responsible for doing this is called Sampler and we will discuss them in this article as well. 1, though I have received a few desktop performance questions as well. These are free OpenGL code examples. Edit: For how this works in CUDA 5 see my new post CUDA 5 and OpenGL Interop and Dynamic Parallelism. The second line glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]) tells OpenGL to bind the named texture texture[0] to a texture target. In the earlier example, drawing a cube requires at least 24 glVertex functions and a pair of glBegin and glEnd. Blender is the free and open source 3D creation suite. 3D textures can have a texture border, while 2D texture arrays are not allowed to have a border. And memory is a very scarce resource on embedded/mobile devices, which is what ES is targeted for. However, what confuses me big deal is the coordinates for the textures. PyOpenGL is the most common cross platform Python binding to OpenGL and related APIs. This is required for points and lines due to the size/width changing, but for triangles, better performance could be had by using VAR. Solar system in 3D with opengl and C# Here is an example using opengl with C#, this example uses a random function for creating stars, also uses quadrics for the planets. This texture requires 4*4*4*3 = 192 bytes of memory. 0 on Android OpenGL ES 2. You'll also need to get your math hat on, because you'll be performing complex transformations, as well as setting up cameras and lighting. So I've got a basic FPS camera working which can move around the 3D space. Nevertheless, understanding the above process opens up a world of possibilities as we can now apply image textures to arbitrary 2D and 3D shapes. i think It's not so much a algorithmic problem but one of limited resources. com is a website that offers digital pictures of all sorts of materials. An intro to modern OpenGL. • Texture compression. It features a powerful high level API for creating complete 3D and 2D applications such as games or scientific visualizations. você pode encontrar a fonte do GIMP em res_texture. OpenGL Texture-Mapping Made Simpler Introduction Texture mapping is a computer graphics capability in which a separate image, referred to as the texture, is stretched onto a piece of 3D geometry and follows it however it is transformed. In order for OpenGL to know which texture it wants to extract the data from, the texture needs to be bound. You will have to find one or make one your self. ) Put the 3D window in texture mapped mode so that you can see the effects of texturing in real-time. Requires little prior knowledge, as it explains everything from compiling your program to 3D algebra. The lessons are mostly in OpenGL ES 2 so you will need support for that on your device. Although I'm using 2D textures for this working example, everything that this article discusses applies equally well to 1D and 3D (OpenGL 1. OpenGL ® ES Bindings. I have started a new updated serie of tutorials on OpenGL ES 2. These tutorials are held locally by the j3d. That is, the texture size is half but you still have 256 "layers". Two-dimensional textures are clamped in the u and v dimensions; 3D procedural textures are clamped in the u, v, and w dimensions. If you are experience in ancient version of OpenGL you might have done Texture mapping which is similar to here. Although I'm using 2D textures for this working example, everything that this article discusses applies equally well to 1D and 3D (OpenGL 1. • pixel buffer objects for texture upload and download. 3D textures are read in shaders. Below is a sample call which I use in my applications. In 2018, Apple deprecated OpenGL in iOS 12 for both iOS and macOS. All codes in C++ including data. For a basic introduction to shaders, see the shader tutorials: Part 1 and Part 2. Our experience drawing Bezier curves with Android Canvas for Horizon, our open source library for sound visualization Drawing a Cubic Bezier with OpenGL ES as a. gl_TexCoord[0] = gl_MultiTexCoord0; A simple example of a vertex shader to setup texture coordinates for a texture, using texture unit 0, could be:. GLUT needs a dll under windows, where LCL typically runs out of the box, but a LCL executable is bigger. Macro is ???. 3D textures are essential in many medical imaging applications, such as those that perform direct volume rendering of 3D voxel data (e. OpenGL 3 Samples Pack. With this book you can easily make cards by combining the materials from the book with card stock in various colors. SimpleScene includes an example WavefrontOBJLoader program, which loads a sample skybox, OBJ 3d model "spaceship", and draws a GL-Point based starfield environment. You will learn to apply both 2D and 3D technologies to bring your game idea to life. As in this OpenGL implementation, one dimension of the abstract maze is mapped to the "Z" dimension of the 3D system, and the "Y" dimension of the 3D system is used to add vertical depth to the maze. Here we hope over time that you will find a number of tutorials about Java and OpenGL. Our users report a 40% increase in speed, and an increase in quality, just by using our assets in their pipeline. Or you can simply download the created COLLADA file and texture. Bollo uses the pyggel opengl libraries which are included with the game. We're not going to review every element of using OpenGL or OpenTK here, but instead provide a glance over some of the main elements. We can get the glew library from here. UI in the app is not…. Texture coordinates are used in order to map a static image onto a 2D or 3D geometry in order to create a mesh. Say how the texture combines with other material properties 5. Which means an OpenGL version 1. 1 of the standard example code, with a small fix to clear vertex array state after drawing. The best way to texture a cube in openGL. Files were then printed in full color on a Stratasys J750. Java 3D Tutorials. OpenGL ES is a flavor of the OpenGL specification intended for embedded devices. Just like with colours, it uses a global state; only one texture can be bound at a time. Another useful extension which, in fact, as been in OpenGL since version 3. You can see the moon example running live. Programação com OpenGL/Modern OpenGL Tutorial 06. Requires little prior knowledge, as it explains everything from compiling your program to 3D algebra. I am writing this JOGL tutorial because I did not find another good one. Additionally, while exporting 3D layers as U3D, keep the following limitations in mind: Higher-level primitives, such as NURBS, splines, and curves, are not supported. This abstraction allows a. A separate command panel allows manipulation of the texture matrix. They definitely do not work on Flash or mobile right now, since those platforms currently just can't support them. In this 3D Studio Max tutorial, you'll see how to use procedurals to create a rock texture. OpenGL* ES is efficient at animating textures after they have been loaded, because the 3D accelerator actually does most of the work. Drawing with OpenGL Commands. glGenTextures(). The texture parameter & environment attributes are tweakable. Tutorial: Texturing 3D Objects In OpenGL ES 2. Although I'm using 2D textures for this working example, everything that this article discusses applies equally well to 1D and 3D (OpenGL 1. Learn about the fundamentals that make the awesome games we play and the game engines behind them. Sparse Textures. Let it rotate! So far all the excercises we had are static. The simple example has a Redraw() function that draws a colored box. 0 programming environment for iPhone, iPod and iPad. 02/13/2003 15-462 n Allows for OpenGL to correct textures for perspective projection There is a performance hit 3D Texture Mapping Almost the same as 2D. power-of-two 2D or 3D textures take up roughly two times (2x) the memory of a texture’s base level memory size. And since tessellation is hot, this article explains how to use tessellation to LOD large terrains easily. This tutorial covers how to use 2D images to create actual 3D depth and physical textures on your CAD parts and then 3D print them. OpenGL is one of the most popular rendering SDKs used to develop games. The texture is a blue and red grid. This is the fourth tutorial in our Android series. The following are code examples for showing how to use OpenGL. 1 compatible. The texture tutorial program (shown above) demonstrates how OpenGL texturing works. Our users report a 40% increase in speed, and an increase in quality, just by using our assets in their pipeline. This is a tutorial on vector algebra and matrix algebra from the viewpoint of computer graphics. The Moon can be rotated using drag-and-drop. You can download the whole document in Word format, or choose a link from the table of contents below. Check them out at: OpenGL ES 2. Cubemaps Advanced-OpenGL/Cubemaps. This tutorial is intended to introduce the basics you need to start developing OpenGL ES applications in Android. For a basic introduction to shaders, see the shader tutorials: Part 1 and Part 2. OpenGL Primitives and Vertices. The image below show us the difference between _GL_LINEAR and _GL_NEAREST on QB64 Bee. A texture is a 2D image (even 1D and 3D textures exist) used to add detail to an object; think of a texture as a piece of paper with a nice brick image (for example) on it neatly folded over your 3D house so it looks like your house has a stone exterior. I am writing this JOGL tutorial because I did not find another good one. OpenGL 3D texture is not loaded correctly from pixel buffer. OpenGL is a cross-platform graphics API that specifies a standard software interface for 3D graphics processing hardware. Example for PC game developers to show how to combine texturing, reflections, and projected shadows all in real-time with OpenGL. I am creating a model of a glass and I would like to put a drawing on it (a png picture). The bot is assigned a material. All chapter include basic concept of Modern OpenGL and especially focus on beginner. This is essentially what popular scripts such as Vol3D v2 (MatlabExchange) are doing, at least in 2D texture mode. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: