Python Requests Urlencode Query String

You can combine them as follows: apikey=72bc447a&t=the+social+network. Task 1: Create a Canonical Request for Signature Version 4 To begin the signing process, create a string that includes information from your request in a standardized (canonical) format. Next, we prepared the xml document string so it can be used on the URL query string. encode and decode with query string. I don;t wanna use request. プログラミング言語 Python 🐍 の使い方について書いています。 Python は 2. urlencode() query parameter can accept a mapping or sequence of 2-tuples and return a string in this format if the optional parameter doseq is set to True. urlencode returns unicode. 编程字典(CodingDict. net MVC action, I am looking if the ReturnUrl value is in the URL. If set to None no unicode decoding will take place. When performing such type of requests, it is possible to specify some parameters in the form variables: those variables, expressed as key-value pairs, form a query string which is "appended" to the URL of the resource. import base64. As an example, click the form below to see the string being URL encoded. The post_data is correctly dict formed. All information about incidents in ServiceNow is available over their API, which is well explained in the on-line documentation [1]. Alex Chan's personal blog. If the request is already complete, the callback is fired immediately. Real life example: I query for bugs: def make_form_data(query=None): """Factory function to create a post form query to submit on a html webpage. Example:urllib/urllib2 , requests. Lars-Erik Aabech wrote: Again, I lost the original first post (weird behavior from OE here,. The manipulation as part of a Query String leads to a. add_data(urllib. A set of key/value pairs that configure the Ajax request. Once request succeed, beautifulsoup will parse content inside Wikipedia. Sometimes we have to feed it ourselves. I don't think we use it (yet) but it seems that urllib3 uses urlencode and so do we. What are the advantages of using Query Strings? 1. I know I can do this manually but because requests automates this, I want to know how I can pass the key-value pair as query string. Note: The result set on a trial access is limited to 100 fields and to a 30 x 30 km square area defined by the following GeoJSON polygon:. 5 (or better) version of REBOL. The query string is the part of the URL that comes after the domain. There are many times that you will want to pass query parameters in a query string. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Use this quickstart to make your first call to the Bing Entity Search API and view the JSON response. To reverse this encoding process, parse_qs() and parse_qsl() are provided in this module to parse query strings into Python data structures. requests Library. Description. I have tried passing the data in through dicts and json strings with no luck. On the World Wide Web, a query string is the part of a uniform resource locator (URL) which assigns values to specified parameters. 2 (Programming Language Software) and classified as critical. parse import parse_qs, urlencode def lambda_handler(event, context): request = event['Records'][0]['cf']['request'] ''' When a request contains a query string key-value pair but the origin server expects the value in a header, you can use this Lambda function to convert the key-value pair to a header. Scrapy uses Request and Response objects for crawling web sites. I'm not really learning Python (in fact I consider myself to be pretty proficient). Python URL Decoding example. Create hosted mandate management. model 1 # Copyright 2014 Google Inc. Im stuck trying to figure out how to URL-encode a URL so that I can use it in a query string parameter. URL encoding is used when placing text in a query string to avoid it being confused with the URL itself. type Values map[]string. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. A URL can be with a query string or without a query string, the same goes also for fragment and in any case all URLs are assumed to be valid. Keep in mind that, if you prepare URL for a connection and used the urlencode on some parameters and didn't use it on the rest of parameters, it will not be decoded automatically at the destination position if the not encoded parameters have special characters that urlencode encodes it. To query data in an SQLite database from Python, you use these steps: First, establish a connection to the SQLite database by creating a Connection object. The default value for this argument is the empty string. HTTP Request fields. If query_data is an object, then only public properties will be incorporated into the result. 1 QueryDict. CherryProxy is a simple HTTP proxy written in Python 2. Always URL encode your Base64 encoded query parameters. Print the text of the response object r by using its text attribute and passing the result to the print() function. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. Browser support for passing values in a query string is nearly universal. All non-alphanumerica characters (except hypens, underscores, and periods) are replaced with percentage (%) signs followed by a two-digit hex code. Attackers can inject double encoding in pathnames or query strings to bypass the authentication schema and security filters in use by the web application. You can search for groups matching certain attributes with the groups. After some study of the python code, I was able to use the script to extract the lastEditDate information and convert it to a standard time format. Never use GET method if you have password or other sensitive information to pass to the server. How to percent-encode URL parameters in Python? requests. with requests query. The requests library is particularly easy to use for this purpose. 0, and returns responses in JSON. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. , a query entered by a user of your application) and returns formatted interpretations of user intent based on the Academic Graph data and the Academic Grammar. There are two different methods for passing variables to a CGI script, the get method and the post method. Network and Web Programming This chapter is about various topics related to using Python in networked and distributed applications. How to URL encode in Python 3?. "utility_mill" is easy to use and can be customized with access to more specific commands available to you. urlencode(query_args. This code is for Python 3. Represents an incoming HTTP request, including all HTTP headers and user-submitted data. com/api/rates?street={street}&post_code={post_code}&country_code=US&weight={weight}[&suburb][&city][&state]. But, do you know when you are creating an interface whereyou provide pagination, filters and orderi. The optional argument keep_blank_values is a flag indicating whether blank values in percent-encoded queries should be treated as blank strings. URL encoding replaces characters that are not allowed in a URL with character-entity equivalents consisting of hexadecimal escape sequences. To query the database using HTTP, submit a GET request to the /query endpoint at port 8086. I'm generating a URL (in string) that depends on 3 optional parameters, file, user and active. if request is None: return. Real Time Weather Observations API change history. So how to retrieve query string params with Django? There are still cases in we need to handle query string parameters, like when dealing with external services that return a URL like: callback?verification_code=088145235648fs689sa56h&userid=854. In this article, you’ll learn how to URL Encode a query string or path segment in Golang. While working on our latest project we needed to remove the query string from a URL. The API reference below is auto-generated from the source code. 2 (Programming Language Software) and classified as critical. Set the query string parameters in a URL Problem. but when I have upload project on server. Filters conditions which are equal or greater than the startDate based on the orderBy parameter. x to control whether keys should be forced to be unicode objects. It works on Unicode characters too. Caratteri speciali all'interno degli argomenti di query che potrebbero causare problemi di elaborazione sono racchiusi tra virgolette quando passati ad urlencode. A binary-safe file read automatically replaces byte values with their corresponding ASCII characters, so I thought that I could use the binary string when I needed readable ASCII strings, and bin2hex() when I needed hex strings. I can do that, but would rather not. So how to retrieve query string params with Django? There are still cases in we need to handle query string parameters, like when dealing with external services that return a URL like: callback?verification_code=088145235648fs689sa56h&userid=854. I know I can do this manually but because requests automates this, I want to know how I can pass the key-value pair as query string. This tutorial will guide you through the steps to create and execute an HTTP request with Fiddler. Any URL that contains a # character is a fragment URL. However, you are not limited to one parameter per URL; you can pass a lot of them at once. In Python 3, you can use the urlencode() method to encode the URL parameters. The optional argument keep_blank_values is a flag indicating whether blank values in percent-encoded queries should be treated as blank strings. Besides, all the cool kids are doing it. Flask returns a 500 status code when it receives a string encoded in this way. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. I spent a large portion of the day at work debugging an issue where I did not URL encode a Base64 encoded value I was sending to a server as a query parameter value. In this article, we'll take a closer look at why query string queries are special and how you can make use of them. 2 get_frame_register_bytes %s/lockfile shoptionletters. To parse JSON strings use the native JSON. This lets you concatenate elements together within a string through positional formatting. it's successful run on local host. encode() method to perform URL encoding in Java. The array form may be a simple one-dimensional structure, or an array of arrays (who in turn may contain other arrays). urlencode expects an unencoded string, you can't pass it a string that is already encoded. Install $ npm install query-string This module targets Node. The Promise interface in jQuery 1. HTTP-based APIs often encode arguments as URL path and query parameters. analyze_wildcard. Finally, we make the HTTP GET call using urllib. Python (version 2. urllib provides the urlencode method which is used for the generation of GET query strings, urllib2 doesn't have such a function. PSR-15 middleware to parse the body of the request with support for json, csv and url-encode. A security token to prevent unauthorized use of your account. May be an array or object containing properties. How to percent-encode URL parameters in Python? requests. Refer to urllib examples to find out how urlencode method can be used for generating query string for a URL or data for POST. when I get it in code using. A globally unique identifier (GUID) for the request which is assigned by the server for instrumentation purposes. Use the online tool from above to either encode or decode a string of text. It is typically used for query parameters and form values. Search the given query string using Google. In this article, you’ll learn how to URL Encode a query string or path segment in Golang. Successful queries will return a 204 HTTP Status Code. Hence forth we will move along with Python Requests library to learn and develop RESTful API. How to send urlencoded parameters in POST request in python. The analyzer name to be used when analyzing the query string. See the Python Requests documentation for how to pass multipart/form-data using syntax similar to our Python sample code. Creating these strings is a matter of reading the API’s documentation, and then either doing the mind-numbing work of manually creating the query strings. The handle_decision() function checks to see if the string 'error' appears in the query string. execute_string (sql_text, remove_comments=False, return_cursors=True) ¶ Execute one or more SQL statements passed as strings. QUERY TYPES There are two Query Types available: 1. If return_cursors is set to True, this method returns a sequence of Cursor objects in the order of execution. Custom Query Options provide an extension point for OData service-specific information to be placed in the query string portion of a URI. URL decoding, as the name suggests, is the inverse operation of URL encoding. lfi_url_encoding. Query strings are also generated by form submission, or by a user typing a query into the address bar of the browser. The query string commonly includes fields added to a base URL by a Web browser or other client application, for example as part of an HTML form. OK, I Understand. The ['fragment'] part of a parsed URL (after the first '#' separator found in any URL) must not be encoded with this rawurlencode() function but instead by urlencode(). I am taking user entered data and passing it through a query string to another page. Unless otherwise noted, all attributes should be treated as read-only. execute_string (sql_text, remove_comments=False, return_cursors=True) ¶ Execute one or more SQL statements passed as strings. You can do pretty much lot of changes while fetching the url via urllib. This blog post describes how to use the HttpWatch interface but the same approach can be used to access other COM components from Python. In this article, we are going to learn how to pass data from one page (aspx page) to another page using Query String in ASP. They should state that only empty strings are accepted (though I do not see the point of accepting and returning an empty string, so maybe empty strings should also be disallowed). URL decoding, as the name suggests, is the inverse operation of URL encoding. The urlparse module provides the functions parse_qs() and parse_qsl() which are used to parse query strings into Python data structures. Python URL Encoding example. The simple is yes – Python can be used just like any other programming language that supports COM on Windows. Files are read in the order specified. Django accepts and sends data to and from a number of external entities: databases, web browsers (form input, HTML output), XML syndication feeds, PDF documents the list is quite long. The UrlEncode(String) method can be used to encode the entire URL, including query-string values. See the Python Requests documentation for how to pass multipart/form-data using syntax similar to our Python sample code. Parse a query string given as a string argument (data of type application/x-www-form-urlencoded). query_string. And store it in the database. $ python urlparse_urlparse. Open the URL url, which can be either a string or a Request object. HttpClient can also be instructed to retry the method even though the request may have already been processed by the server and the I/O exception has occurred while receiving the response. execute_string (sql_text, remove_comments=False, return_cursors=True) ¶ Execute one or more SQL statements passed as strings. When building web pages, it is often necessary to add links that require parameterized query strings. I am running a get command using requests. NET, Perl, Java, C, C++, Ruby and many more, see the Wikipedia article Comparison Of Programming Languages (String Functions). script_name Optional script name corresponds to CGI environment variable SCRIPT_NAME, used to calculate correct 302 redirects. The optional argument keep_blank_values is a flag indicating whether blank values in percent-encoded queries should be treated as blank strings. Currently used only for JSONP callbacks. You can use urlsplit() and urlunsplit() to break apart and rebuild a URL, then use urlencode() on the parsed query string: from urllib. write basic python program: 1. The string consists of: The HTTP action. Python's urllib. The array form may be a simple one-dimensional structure, or an array of arrays (who in turn may contain other arrays). Net TAGs: ASP. urlopen of the component urllib2. There are two different methods for passing variables to a CGI script, the get method and the post method. execute_string (sql_text, remove_comments=False, return_cursors=True) ¶ Execute one or more SQL statements passed as strings. Handy for turning encoded JavaScript URLs from complete gibberish into readable gibberish. parse # note that dictionaries in Python are unordered parameters. The interpret REST API takes an end user query string (i. If set to True then keys will be unicode in all cases. Each parameter has a name and value, the options to encode the parameter, and an option to include or exclude an equals sign (some applications don't expect an equals sign when the value is the empty string). The query string (maps to the query_string query, see Query String Query for more details). However, I have hit the url structure from above, and I am not sure how to do that in python without manually building strings. QueryString cannot be used. The objective of this post is to explain how to use the split method to separate strings in sub-strings accordingly to a given separator string. We can install it with: sudo pip install requests. You can do pretty much lot of changes while fetching the url via urllib. Solved: I would like to use a python script to retrieve data from the v3 analytics API. You will need to generate this for each unique request. Url Encode Url Decode Encode Online Tool Decode Encoder Url Html Javascript Urlencode Urldecode Percentencoding Php Utf8 Online Translate Link Decrypter In Url String Encoding Decodeuri - Free online tool for url encode url decode encrypt decrypt. post Fetch the reporting hierarchy for a specified user. format() method of the string class allows you to do variable substitutions and value formatting. It will in due time. exe import os import cgi def printHeader. If characters such as blanks and punctuation are passed in an HTTP stream, they might be misinterpreted at the receiving end. That's really helpful! In my case, I only have a portion of string that I want to URL-encode, for example I want to transform my string to my%20string. プログラミング言語 Python 🐍 の使い方について書いています。 Python は 2. Python URL Decoding example. url encoding url-encoder Updated Jul 13, 2019; 29 Python script for decoding Base64, Url Encoding and ROT encoding. import json. Your solution works like a charm for that! - TanguyP Feb 14 '16 at 11:27. The urlparse module provides the functions parse_qs() and parse_qsl() which are used to parse query strings into Python data structures. Remaining Limit - For this Query type You use only apikey and remaininglimit variables 2. I have figured out that there are two more ways to get the query string: Using urlparse urlparse. Perhaps instead the following would be more clear: "The urllib. Following this example, create the "callback" URL in your urlconf:. Creating a Signature. execute_string (sql_text, remove_comments=False, return_cursors=True) ¶ Execute one or more SQL statements passed as strings. urlencode (query, doseq=True, quote_via=) [source] ¶. start(int) - First result to retrieve. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. There are different types of technique available in ASP. So, if you visit a website using python, you can get everything that a person sees to a program and perform anything you want with that data. The application I needed it for was a legacy system that heavily used rewrites. com/kjuh6j/iyoc. The QueryString parameters will be encoded inside the Eval function using UrlEncode function of the HttpUtility class in ASP. Data are returned as a list of name, value pairs. it's successful run on local host. Returns the decoded string. urlencode(query_args. It is an easy-to-use library with a lot of features ranging from passing parameters in URLs to sending custom headers and SSL Verification. The main issue we found was we have a val. Note: Standard port numbers should not be included in the query request string used to calculate the signature. A non-negative decimal between 0 and 100, with at most two decimal places. Until the official documentation is out, all requests and responses are simple JSON models. To reverse this encoding process, parse_qs() and parse_qsl() are provided in this module to parse query strings into Python data structures. For information, see the documentation. Any ideas?. URL Parser / Query String Splitter. You can use it to encode your url. URL Encoding replaces "unsafe" characters with '%' followed by their hex equivalent. A true value indicates that blanks should be retained as blank. lazy ([pool]) ¶ Returns an API wrapper for making implicitly parallel requests using either eventlet or gevent. But we would again run into Python's strict backward compatibility policy. Setting a Consistency Level. function for query string values. request_version there, I think it would be better to divide the current content of self. Sometimes we have to feed it ourselves. Your solution works like a charm for that! – TanguyP Feb 14 '16 at 11:27. query_string. Class: https. ; In ArcGIS 10. That being said, DON'T do this!. oauth2 --generate_oauth2_string [email protected] When building web pages, it is often necessary to add links that require parameterized query strings. Running the latest version of your program is easy with the "run_latest(name, query)" command and requires no knowledge of UM's API -- just supply the program's name and keyword arguments that it requires for execution. I am using requests library to call Binance REST API. Hence forth we will move along with Python Requests library to learn and develop RESTful API. Example HTTP GET request using a query string Where 1 is the query string. Delimit multiple queries with a semicolon ;. Escaping Characters in a Solr Query / Solr URL We’re using our own Solr library at Derdubor at the moment, but we’ve only been using it for indexing content. js this is implemented as a separate module. Python 101: An Intro to urllib will tell us what it thinks our user-agent string is. I may switch to the direct-to-Cloudfront approach later, but in the meantime the pixel-based approach works well, and is easier to change. But I don't feel concern about that because I run my program in a private network, not over internet. num(int) - Number of results per page. If you want support for older browsers, or, if your project is using create-react-app v1, use version 5: npm install [email protected] We want to make this query string gender parameter optional. 5 we provided the REST Starter Kit which included a fair bit of server side code to enable a collection of RequestInterceptor objects that we showed doing API Key verification. The most Pythonic version of this depends a bit on what you do with that URL afterwards. Unable to find one that fulfills my requirements, I wrote a quick and simple Python script that consumes Indeed job search API and stores the search results in a CSV. The tests on the ESP32 were performed using a DFRobot’s ESP-WROOM-32 device integrated in a ESP32 FireBeetle board. A QueryDict can be used to represent GET or POST data. #!/usr/bin/python def main():. Python Batch Request def callback(url, subresponse, subcontent): self. Delimit multiple queries with a semicolon ;. Questions: I'm building an "API API", it's basically a wrapper for a in house REST web service that the web app will be making a lot of requests to. It is the md5 hash of the entire query string and your SECRETKEY. JSONRequest. Web Scraping is a…. To send a geometry, the geometry has to be specified in JSON format. This is an example of a HTTP GET request using a query string. content now returns bytes instead of a string. A term can be a single word — quick or brown — or a phrase, surrounded by double quotes — "quick brown" — which searches for all the words in the. I have tried passing the data in through dicts and json strings with no luck. Beeline can be run disconnected from a terminal for batch processing and automation scripts using commands such as nohup and disown. This should be done BEFORE calling urlencode() on query parts. Send SMS in PHP, C#, Java, Python, Perl, VB. Unfortunately, it is of limited use to us unless we customise its activities somehow. HTTP-based APIs often encode arguments as URL path and query parameters. QueryString"strVal1")) String strQueryVal2= Server. String Manipulation For Programmers For a comparison of string function notation in different programming languages such as Pascal, VB. Refer to urllib examples to find out how urlencode method can be used for generating query string for a URL or data for POST. Say you have a databound control like Gridview, Repeater or ListView that contains a column with link (HyperLink) to another page. To reverse this encoding process, parse_qs() and parse_qsl() are provided in this module to parse query strings into Python data structures. Class: https. parse modules contains functions called quote(), quote_plus(), and urlencode() to encode any string to URL encoded format. Perhaps instead the following would be more clear: "The urllib. path into three parts: self. The QueryString parameters will be encoded inside the Eval function using UrlEncode function of the HttpUtility class in ASP. Your query parameters can be retrieved from the query object on the request object sent to your route. · In spite of having additional features, urllib cannot be completely replaced by urllib2 since the former provides important methods (e. Since each endpoint is a url on the web you can access data from the API by using a command line program like curl, a programming language like Python or Ruby, or even by viewing the url in your browser. They should state that only empty strings are accepted (though I do not see the point of accepting and returning an empty string, so maybe empty strings should also be disallowed). GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Net, GridView, HyperLink. In this article, we are going to learn how to pass data from one page (aspx page) to another page using Query String in ASP. Some of the web service calls need to be GET rather than post, but passing parameters. the values dose not appeares in the textboxes this is the code: Protected Sub Page_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System. Most Web APIs require you to pass in configuration values via a URL query string. The urllib module provides a simple interface for network resource access. NET, Powershell & other programming languages. urlencode(). I spent a large portion of the day at work debugging an issue where I did not URL encode a Base64 encoded value I was sending to a server as a query parameter value. For POST, PUT, and PATCH requests, it also parses the request body as a form and puts the results into both r. You can use urlsplit() and urlunsplit() to break apart and rebuild a URL, then use urlencode() on the parsed query string: from urllib. You already familiar with gTTS and mixer so I am passing that part. The request must be made by a platform account on a connected account in order to set an application fee percentage. Attackers can inject double encoding in pathnames or query strings to bypass the authentication schema and security filters in use by the web application. OK, I Understand. This code is for Python 3. Using Entrez gene ID 88 as query on Uniprot's page you linked to gives me F6THM6, P35609, Q59FD9 as results so your scripts gives the correct result in this particular case. URL decoding, as the name suggests, is the inverse operation of URL encoding. The value can be a file path name (a string) or a sequence of path name strings. Requests made using an async() API will return green threads. The errors may be given to set. The Requests python library is simple and straight forward library for developing RESTful Clients. Example HTTP GET request using a query string Where 1 is the query string. Learn How to decode URLs in Python. A globally unique identifier (GUID) for the request which is assigned by the server for instrumentation purposes. The objective of this post is to explain how to use the split method to separate strings in sub-strings accordingly to a given separator string. This blog post describes how to use the HttpWatch interface but the same approach can be used to access other COM components from Python. No he estado satisfecho con todas las soluciones de esta página ( vamos, ¿dónde está nuestra opción favorita de copiar y pegar?), Así que escribí las mías basadas en las respuestas aquí. This client provides an API for retrieving and inserting BigQuery data by wrapping Google's low-level API client library. subresponse = subresponse self. 暖心芽 (WIP) 🌞 ️🌱 - reminder of hope, warmth, thoughts and feelings. py file, path converters, regular expression named groups, optional url parameters, default url parameters, extracting url parameters with request. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: