Socket Programming Multiple Client To One Server

non-blocking sockets So far in this chapter, you've seen that select() can be used to detect when data is available to read from a socket. Emails are synced in real time. These are the stages involved:. threads: the number of threads that should be created within the web client. Sockets are bound to the port numbers and when we run any server it just listens on the socket and waits for client requests. If C1 and C2 both connect to s, two connected sockets at S will be created, s 1 and s 2 , and likely two separate processes. Also, each TWS session can receive up to 32 different client applications simultaneously. Java Project Tutorial - Make Login and Register Form Step by Step Using NetBeans And MySQL Database - Duration: 3:43:32. During which a socket is created between these two. Nagios Log Server greatly simplifies the process of searching your log data. The client sends a SYN packet to the server to initiate a handshake. The goal of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides HTTP services in sync with the current HTTP standards. net) takes care of all of. The client requests with the HTML pages and the objects which are then exchanged between the client browser and web server. Care should be taken if enabling 0-RTT at the client because a number of protections must be enabled at the server. Then compile the program with [cc inline=”1″]javac TCPClient. Core FTP now! [ view sample screens ] Need to transfer files between computers via FTP? Try our SFTP server. In the previous section Socket Programming , the Server Socket Program can communicate with only one client at a time. There are two communication protocols that one can use for socket programming: User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transfer Control Protocol (TCP). java constructs one socket, as shown in Figure 2. Transferring of Java Objects through sockets Assume we have a client application in one machine and a server application in another machine. Such a delay should not happen. Here server listens for incoming requests and once connection is established, it simply replies Smile from the server. Each message sent by one client is forwarded to all other clients. Debian GNU/Linux 6. Once the connection is accepted by the server, each program can communicate via input-output channels over the sockets created at both ends. In this way we can stream videos to multiple locations simultaneously. Client and Server Communication. This document specifies Version 3. The console outputs of the Server and of the Client are shown below:. So, if you put all three together, Socket may be viewed as a link that is hooked to the Port of the IP address of the hosts where TCP or UDP define the rules of the game. The remote machine is the other one, the one that is the argument of the ftp command. Since 1992, Samba has provided secure, stable and fast file and print services for all clients using the SMB/CIFS protocol, such as all versions of DOS and Windows, OS/2, Linux and many others. This class makes it possible to easily download web pages for testing. js and socket. Your client and server can be the same app, making this a very nice distributed solution with no single point of failure. Net and System. The goal of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides HTTP services in sync with the current HTTP standards. 1 million web servers. The communication between client and server happens via sockets; Programming TCP sockets in Node requires the net module, which is an asynchronous wrapper for network programming. For example, the maximum number of threads permitted, and the default thread stack size are two important limits to consider when designing your program. Properties of UDP: The UDP does not provide guaranteed delivery of message packets. Socket Programming in Java This article describes a very basic one-way Client and Server setup where a Client connects, sends messages to server and the server shows them using socket connection. Debian GNU/Linux 6. This helps keep our application responsive at all time. There are two communication protocols that one can use for socket programming: User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Transfer Control Protocol (TCP). Multi-Client-Server-chat-application / javaSwing-Server_Client / src / aboullaite / ChatClient. The multiple client server is all messed up and doesn’t even work properly, trash and useless. First when client send request to server means that when you load a web page, your computer sends TCP (bytes forms)packets to the web server’s address, then server send the web page to you as response. Python network sockets programming tutorial In this tutorial you will learn about in network programming. run the ClientMain. Next step is to start Java TCPClient Socket Program in the same computer or other computers on the same network. you can connect to the server more then one client at the same time. If you are going to prepare client program, then first you will use socket() call to create a socket and then you would have to use connect() call to connect to the server. Socket Programming in Java | Sending Text Files Between Server and Client by dumbitdude · Published July 3, 2017 · Updated August 22, 2018 In order to understand socket programming in java and how to send text files between server and client, you need to first comprehend the basics of networking. How it Works. November 29, 2017 at 6:06 pm. I want to connect single client to multiple servers. You can use the mail server settings in this article to manually set up your email app to send and receive email with an iCloud email account. 4 with the IP address of the machine in which the server program is running. -b windowsize Size of TCP send/receive buffer, in bytes. " Sockets are created and used with a set of programming requests or "function calls" sometimes called the sockets application programming interface (API). SQL Server client access licenses are not required for that use. If you have an email client on your computer, the software is connecting to an IMAP or POP server to download your messages to your computer, and an SMTP server to send messages back through the email server. In our previous article on socket programming in python we learned about the basics of creating a socket server and client in python. Network programming in windows is possible with sockets , peer-to-peer Microsoft Windows applications that act as servers and clients to send and receive data. You can add only one personal account to the OneDrive app. ) and the request handler deals with the “protocol” issues (interpreting incoming data, processing it, sending data back to the client). c uses CreateThread function and non-blocking sockets. Defaults to true when you don’t call the method. The server socket is 8080 so to get more than one person talking to the server at once, the server needs to hand off socket connections to a different port. The default range for dynamic ports in Windows is 1024 to 5000, thus giving 3977 outbound concurrent connections for each IP Address. For example, with a forking solution, after the server forks, the child process works with the client as if there was only one client in the universe, the child does not have to worry about new incoming connections or the existence of other sockets. This is the default data connection mode when and FTPClient instance is created. • The interface to network protocols need to accommodate server code that. PuTTY is open source software that is available with source code and is developed and supported by a group of volunteers. Common web applications include webmail , online retail sales , online banking, and online auction. The remote machine is the other one, the one that is the argument of the ftp command. This is a useful feature to minimize the number of resources (TCP connections) and at the same time separate concerns within your application by introducing separation between communication channels. When a web browser (or client) points to a secured website, the server shares the public key with the client to establish an encryption method and a unique session key. If the server gets a request for a connection, then the server can open up another port that is unique for that one connection. s_client can be used to debug SSL servers. This application will show you the simplest way to transfer messages through Sockets between many connected users on the same network. This class makes it possible to easily download web pages for testing. A socket is defined as "the endpoint in a connection. To shut Emacs down completely, call the command `(kill-emacs)’. Servlets receive and respond to requests from Web clients, usually across HTTP, the HyperText Transfer Protocol. To apply these usage licenses to computers within your environment, each of the computers must have a preexisting, qualifying operating system license (that is, a license for Windows XP Professional, Windows Vista Business,. I want to connect single client to multiple servers. When a server program/service creates a socket it usually binds to tcp/udp port. You're gonna need multiple threads to handle multiple connections. I am not sure if the above links provides UDP "Broadcast". In this article I will not focus on the basics of socket programming in. If the client user types ". A servlet is a small Java program that runs within a Web server. The command. If the connection is accepted, the server establishes and maintains a connection with the client over a specific protocol. s = socket. I'm assuming you mean "how can I have multiple client socket connections to my server process implemented in Java?" A web server is a good example of this scenario. The following program examples are connection-oriented where sockets use TCP to connect a server to a client, and a client to a server. The default range for dynamic ports in Windows is 1024 to 5000, thus giving 3977 outbound concurrent connections for each IP Address. After a client/server framework is designed and the server can accept multiple clients and they can send messages back and forth, the next most common issue is determining how to define the actual message content. Learn how to set up email client programs for Comcast email. If so, how does the server know which client to send a message back to. How do I handle this? How does socket actually work with multiple client / one server?. The server in the client/server pair serves "Knock Knock" jokes. 1 and port 23000 are being used on all three clients and the server. Actually you can have multiple processes listening on the same port. Peter Lubbers makes an introduction to HTML5 Web Sockets explaining how they interact with proxy servers, and what proxy configuration or updates are needed for the Web Sockets traffic to go through. Bind the socket to an address using the bind() system call. I am working on a client/server system (written in C, using TCP/IP sockets). This is an introduction to network programming by building a server in C++ that echos the client's messages back. Emulation Older clients, mobile devices, or browsers behind firewalls and proxies that don't support WebSocket communication should not be excluded from the party. Our first implementation of the Web server will be multi-threaded, where the processing of each incoming request will take place inside a separate thread of execution. It starts a server which will be always running listening to a port 25000 (Server. The function tcpconnectshows all the steps necessary to connect to a TCP server. If you are going to prepare client program, then first you will use socket() call to create a socket and then you would have to use connect() call to connect to the server. 1 and others. The sample contains the source code for a TCP server and client. Participate in the Twisted Project Sponsorship Program!For Silver Sidewinder and higher-level sponsors, we will display your logo here on the front page for one year. Make Use of Java Socket Programming. It works for first requests but then my server wait from the client and the client wait response from the server. RC4 An asymmetric key encryption technique that weaves a key with data multiple times as a computer issues the stream of data. With the release of each version of Windows Server, the maxima for supported number of sockets and logical processors have increased. Frystyk W3C/MIT L. recvfrom(2) - Linux man page Name. To make a process a TCP server, you need to follow the steps given below − Create a socket with the socket() system call. That array is called connections, and every time a new client connects, the client is added to the array using the. This allows multiple SSL configurations to be associated with a single secure connector with the configuration used for any given connection determined by the host name requested by the client. The multiple client server is all messed up and doesn’t even work properly, trash and useless. In short about TCP protocol ():The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Port (computer networking) The lowest numbered 1024 port numbers are called the well-known port numbers, and identify the historically most commonly used services. An HTTP proxy is a program that acts as an intermediary between a client and a server. ) The Client / Server Model 3. You just have to connect it to the server and then numerous clients can connect at the same time. g Introduction to Socket programming, Sockets in C#, etc), but instead I will focus on the part which those useful articles are not covering and that is "How to develop a socket server. Note: In this tutorial we will show how to program sockets in Java using the TCP/IP protocol only since it is more widely used than UDP/IP. You may have to change those TCP/IP settings for the operating system to deal with the higher stress levels. Our aim is to send a file from the client machine to the server machine. hi i am trying to build an application where I have one multithreaded server replying to requests from mutiple clients. When the server is started, it should display a list of IP addresses of all local interfaces and wait for the client to connect. Why? If the TCP server were to support n simultaneous connections, each from a different client host, how many sockets would the TCP server need? 21) For the client-server application over TCP described in. Your server program "server3" will be a single process server that uses the "select" system call to handle multiple clients. SslStream etc to connect to a IMAP server like Gmail and send commands to the server and downloading one's email from one's account , programatically. Default port settings are set again when client disconnects. The emacsclient program can specify a server by name, using the ‘-s ’ or the ‘-f ’ option (see emacsclient Options), depending on whether or not the server uses a TCP socket (see TCP Emacs server). I have a socket server aplication that uses the Socket. Socket and ServerSocket classes are used for connection-oriented socket programming and DatagramSocket and DatagramPacket classes are used for connection-less socket programming. Multiple clients should be able to simultaneously chat with the server. File transfer through socket in Java. Pyhon Socket programming Socket programming is one of the most fundamental technologies of computer network programming. Sockets were designed to implement the client-server model for interprocess communication where: • The interface to network protocols needs to accommodate multiple communication protocols, such as TCP/IP, XNS, and UNIX domain. The following example program creates a server that receives connection requests from clients. The syntax might vary, but the underlying concept is the same. java on a machine which. One programming technique is to create a continuous loop that checks for connection requests using the listen function (see Listening on a Socket). Example of client/server with select(). ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. TCP Client/Server Example¶ Introduction¶ We will now use the elementary functions from the previous chapter to write a complete TCP client/server example. Sockets are the backbone of networking. The first one is the server program, second one is the worker thread which is executing the client request and the last one is the client program which is initiating multiple threads as per requirement. To facilitate this, the SSLHostConfig element was added which can be used to define one of these configurations. I have made a simple socket program so that client can connect to server by specifying ip of system in which server is running. A subscriber can in fact connect to more than one publisher, using one ‘connect’ call each time. 7 only needed one socket, whereas the TCP server described in Section 2. Java Scoket is used to connect them together. Sockets: Basic Client-Server Programming in Java - By Rick Proctor By: Rick Proctor Abstract: A Basic Socket Processing How To. But, while a TCP socket is for long-lived connections, a UDP socket is for applications where an established connection is not required. The client in socket programming must know two information: IP Address of Server, and; Port number. net package, so be sure to say import java. A pair of sockets actually one on the client, one on the server. Network programming in windows is possible with sockets , peer-to-peer Microsoft Windows applications that act as servers and clients to send and receive data. Create the Client in Android. It’s actually very common to do so. 2 CLIENT / SERVER MODEL The MODBUS messaging service provides a Client/Server communication between devices connected on an Ethernet TCP/IP network. System Center Components. A machine offering Telnet service can support multiple simultaneous sessions with different users, keeping each distinct by identifying it using the IP address and port number of the client. Our SSH Server provides secure remote access to Windows servers and workstations. Select monitoring. js which worked out nicely as a start but since we are trying to get as much as possible out of the EC2 instance we needed something that is a little bit more light-weight. Rather than processing the incoming requests in the same thread that accepts the client connection, the connection is handed off to a worker thread that will process the request. py 5546 python sub_client. [Tile server and a client neatly] I will click "Connect" button on one of the clients. (one server and multiple clients) Socket Programming in C, TCP over. Programming sockets in Java. class, or you will get the error: “Exception in thread “main” java. -c concurrency Number of multiple requests to perform at a time. You can specify the sender and multiple recipients including CC and BCC. This is my first network programming codes writing for a client who has the following requirement: My Server has to run 24*7*365 for multiple clients at the same time (concurrency). It is a multithreaded client/server ChatServer based on console which uses Java Socket programming. Sockets: Basic Client-Server Programming in Java - By Rick Proctor By: Rick Proctor Abstract: A Basic Socket Processing How To. on('data') was not being triggered, that is because server. (Kinda similar to how the web browser and web server have agreed to using the HTTP protocol over TCP sockets. I have a client/server program in which I am trying to use multithreading on the server side. [c/c++] How To Code A Multi-client Server In C\++ Using Threads - posted in Tutorials: NOTE: I already wrote this and posted it somewhere else, so instead of rewriting it I just copy pasted it here, so sorry if some bits don't look right (smileys, tags etc etc ). The command. In C, the select() call lets the kernel do this work. The Socket class is in the java. Programming sockets in Java. The client and server can communicate by writing to or reading from their sockets. 1' # Set the remote host, for testing it is localhost PORT = 8000 # The same port as used by the server s = socket. Because this program has a lot of options and also because some of the techniques used are rather old, the C source of s_client is rather hard to read and not a model of how things should be done. Network Working Group R. It follows the client-server architecture that most of you-all must be aware of. Method accept() returns when a client has connected to your server. The server is built with an asynchronous socket, so execution of the server application is not suspended while it waits for a connection from a client. The object contains the file name , destination path. Comment below if you have queries or found something incorrect in above tutorial for socket programming in C and C++. By default, only the bandwidth from the client to the server is measured. You can also use a TCP connection to stream large amounts of data in real-time, but this can be a problem when you might need more than one client (receiver of the data from the Particle), or the client moves from machine to machine or the destination IP address changes frequently. The following header files. Introduction. Our first implementation of the Web server will be multi-threaded, where the processing of each incoming request will take place inside a separate thread of execution. For advanced users, Core FTP Pro is available with advanced features you need. i'm trying to write a chat server which can handle multiple clients, i've looked online and can't figure out how to name my threads, i thought Multiple client chat server (Beginning Java forum at Coderanch). A client-server application is a distributed system made up of both client and server software. Executing the client and server programs. Redirection messages 300 Multiple Choice The request has more than one possible response. java and ServerMain. How to create HTTP Server in Java - ServerSocket Example Java has a very good networking support, allows you to write client server application by using TCP Sockets. The feature allows Informix users to enable TCP socket timeout options for specific connections to the Informix server. Sockets are the backbone of networking. According to Daniel Roth, principal program manager for ASP. Because this program has a lot of options and also because some of the techniques used are rather old, the C source of s_client is rather hard to read and not a model of how things should be done. Multithreaded client server socket. This document covers information on setting up SSL virtualhosts, creating keyfiles, certificates along with how to protect access to directories and URLs to specific ciphers. connected[clients. NET framework provides two namespaces, System. Accept method, then within a Task I pass the accepted socket to an Action that in another module manages the send recieve logic, so I have 1 new long running task per accepted socket. My questions follow the programs. The client-server model is one of the most used communication paradigms in networked systems. You may have to change those TCP/IP settings for the operating system to deal with the higher stress levels. Python 3 socket programming example April 13, 2015 ranatigrina2002 Cross Platform When it comes to network programming Python is a gem, not that it is not good at other stuffs but network programming is handled by Python exceedingly well and it makes it really easy to code and debug. From a server’s perspective, at any point in time, it is not unusual for a server to be communicating with multiple clients. Also, each TWS session can receive up to 32 different client applications simultaneously. Length header, loop to service multiple requests, and respond appropriately when the client closes the connection. 1 you can do it by including an option "domain-name-servers" to DHCP's configuration file. In the socket programming model, a socket represents an endpoint of a communication channel. All the frames from multiple streams are sent asynchronously. You need not know anything about Perl or socket programming in Perl, nonetheless you might want to refer it if you wish to. Complete Code for Client & Server can be found below for download. If you use this, you probably want to call ISteamNetworkingUtils::InitRelayNetworkAccess when your app initializes. The remote machine is the other one, the one that is the argument of the ftp command. Once the server disconnects the connection, the client exists itself. How do I handle this? How does socket actually work with multiple client / one server?. If I run this multi threaded server in one terminal and two or three clients in other terminals, and lets say, client1 sent a message and client2 also sent a message, and after that if the server replies then how would I know which client is being sent the message. Writing the Server Side of a Socket The section shows you how to write the server side of a socket connection through a complete client/server example. Default recovery procedure can be replaced with a custom one. Comet is an umbrella term, encompassing multiple techniques for achieving this interaction. The ChatClient starts the client program, connects to a server specified by hostname/IP address and port number. Socket, which provides low-level bindings to the C-socket API. i dont get. Now let run this new server program and run several client programs, you will see the problem above has solved. Notice that loopback address 127. A client/server network is a system where one or more computers called clients connect to a central computer named a server to share or use resources. The server has fulfilled a GET request for the resource, and the response is a representation of the result of one or more instance-manipulations applied to the current instance. Client Server System with Sockets Now, let's create a simple server system that accepts incoming connections and some data we type. The sample contains the source code for a TCP server and client. Multithreaded Server Socket Program. In this case it has to use some sort of polling mechanism between the ports. This is a quick guide/tutorial to learning socket programming in C language on Windows. In this article I will not focus on the basics of socket programming in. For most of this article we'll be extending the simple client/server pair (wclient and wserver) we presented in Part 1 to create two new programs: wclient2 and wserver2. It would help if the client sent the null terminator too, although that's not causing a problem in your code as it stands. With network sharing capability and permission control on all resources, this tool is ideal for offices who use shared calendars. Typically, the local port and local IP will be the same for all connections to a server process (e. Multiple Sockets Now lets say you have two sockets connecting to either two different servers or same server (which is perfectly valid). This document covers information on setting up SSL virtualhosts, creating keyfiles, certificates along with how to protect access to directories and URLs to specific ciphers. The server in the client/server pair serves "Knock Knock" jokes. 55 thoughts on " Server and client example with C sockets on Linux " jknjk. Read-Handle (RH), shared access This is similar to the Level 2 oplock, with the added benefit of allowing the client to keep a file open on the server even though the accessor on the client has closed the file. The following codes are server and client program examples that used the previous discussed Winsock functions and structures. run the ClientMain. And then, there is the full source code of the client-server program written in C language. 03/30/2017; 2 minutes to read +8; In this article. In this section we will answer the most frequently asked questions about programming sockets in Java. Alternatively, you can set the socket to deliver SIGIO when activity occurs on a socket; see socket(7) for details. Comet is a web application model in which a long-held HTTPS request allows a web server to push data to a browser, without the browser explicitly requesting it. NET at Microsoft: With Blazor a developer can write client-side web UI using. This tutorial explains how to install and configure Telnet Server and client in Linux step by step. Mail server settings for iCloud email clients. Hello, one and all! This is my little how-to guide on network programming using Internet sockets, or "sockets programming", for those of you who prefer it. This tutorial assumes you have a basic knowledge of socket programming, i. Such a delay should not happen. To get started I would recommend creating a new database that will contain our application. The feature allows Informix users to enable TCP socket timeout options for specific connections to the Informix server. Like wclient, wclient2 is a simple HTTPS (see RFC 2818) client. The term socket programming refers to writing programs that execute across multiple computers in which the devices are all connected to each other using a network. First up is Evan Huack, who digs into cudafy, a library on codeplex that allows you to run C# code (any IL code actually) on your GPU. Although we could arguably just pass a pointer to client_socket, it is good practice to use a struct that encapsulates the parameters to the thread (even if there is only one parameter). Sockets: Basic Client-Server Programming in Java - By Rick Proctor By: Rick Proctor Abstract: A Basic Socket Processing How To. Start of with creating an server that will handle clients that connect, and requests that will be send. The server can send data to a client by calling the send()method. Hello Friends, I am Free Lance Tutor, who helped student in completing their homework. Length header, loop to service multiple requests, and respond appropriately when the client closes the connection. In this tutorial we shall. js application should include the socket. -B local-address Address to bind to when making outgoing connections. You need not know anything about Perl or socket programming in Perl, nonetheless you might want to refer it if you wish to. And then, there is the full source code of the client-server program written in C language. Hello, I am developing a software in Visual Studio 2013 C#. This client/server pair runs a simple TCP socket program as an Echo Server that only allows one client to connect to the server. I've done my research but i still can't making things work. This code is only useful for this demonstration. This server listens for port 9999 of all interfaces. The following codes are server and client program examples that used the previous discussed Winsock functions and structures. hi i am trying to build an application where I have one multithreaded server replying to requests from mutiple clients. NET Console based application , that can handle multiple clients at the same time. java) sends back the result (message) to the client (Client. This identification of connections using both client and server sockets is what provides the flexibility in allowing multiple connections between devices that we take for granted on the Internet. During the 5 second delay I suggest you use the break command (on the debug menu) to see what the client and the server are doing. -b windowsize Size of TCP send/receive buffer, in bytes. threads: the number of threads that should be created within the web client. Server Program. The call takes a number of file descriptors. In this article, we will see how to create a C# socket and setup a listener server node that starts listening to any messages coming its way via the predefined IP and protocol. Client server application provide a better way to share the workload. I hope this article provides a good amount of information about pushing data from the server to client using Asp. The client application creates a socket and asks the client OS to connect it to the server. I want to connect single client to multiple servers. portnum: the port number that the web server is listening on and that the client should send to; the basic web client already handles this argument. 20) The UDP server described in Section 2. In short about TCP protocol ():The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. On linux this can be done in various ways like forking , threading , select method etc. Therefore if one response is taking too long then other’s don’t have to wait for it to finish. Blocking vs. Note, on the client side we want to require socket. The two processes each establish their own socket. communications usin g sockets in detail and three alternative Java based examples of client -server implementation. This is the type of application that I'll be covering in this tutorial. Once a socket is connected, it can be used to send and receive data until. If there is a firewall between the logging server and any logging clients, ensure that the firewall ruleset allows UDP port 514 for both the clients and the server. Comment below if you have queries or found something incorrect in above tutorial for socket programming in C and C++. Care should be taken if enabling 0-RTT at the client because a number of protections must be enabled at the server. Client (Client. MSP and Managed Services Software. Once you have a socket open, you can read from it like any IO object. SocketTest is a free, small socket tester. Tech support scams are an industry-wide issue where scammers trick you into paying for unnecessary technical support services. As soon as we've created that clientsocket, we go back to listening for more connections. C# podcasts. java simply creates socket connection with the specified address on port 3339. Another approach might be to make a program on the robot using the Client-Server approach via a TCP socket – and the transfer data into the running program on the robot – thereby the data is inside the Polyscope environment. bind((host, port)) # Bind to the port s. ) Byte Ordering 5. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: